Although present in rather small amounts in our bodies, chromium is a mineral of great importance for our well-being. Research suggests that chromium helps insulin transport glucose to cells in order to produce energy. Also, it is believed that it may be beneficial in lowering blood sugar levels in individuals suffering from type-2 diabetes. Moreover, it appears to have great positive effects on the cardiovascular system, contributing to lowering blood cholesterol levels and reducing high blood pressure in addition to high blood glucose levels in pre-diabetes.
Additionally, the mineral supports the digestion process and contributes to ensuring adequate energy levels. Our body requires rather small amounts of chromium to help it perform essential life-sustaining functions. This mineral is essential for good metabolism because it helps transform glucose into energy, which our body then uses to sustain basic functions such as digestion or breathing.
How much chromium a day?
An adequate daily intake of chromium is set at around 25 mcg (micrograms) for an adult woman and around 35 mcg for an adult man. Pregnant and nursing women have been found to require around 30 mcg of the mineral a day.
What is chromium good for?
An adequate chromium intake also supports the conversion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates into energy. Moreover, it is said to promotes muscle tone and actively contributes to lowering high cholesterol levels. In addition to this, it activates several essential body enzymes and supports brain activity. It has been suggested that the mineral may help reduce bone loss by regulating calcium metabolism and thus potentially benefit osteoporosis sufferers. Also, it has been theorized that vitamin C and vitamin B3 can significantly increase the absorption of the mineral. Our diet should supply us with adequate amounts, necessary for staying in good health.
Chromium food sources
Chromium rich foods include brewer’s yeast, broccoli, black pepper, thyme, mushrooms, whole grains, potatoes, tomatoes, coffee, tea, beer (due to its high yeast content) and meat. Brewer’s yeast is by far the richest food source of the mineral. However, it is not so easy on the stomach and many people have trouble digesting it. Broccoli is the second best chromium food source. Coffee and tea are two rather problematic foods.
While they may be good sources of dietary chromium, coffee and tea are also known to hold anti-nutrient value, meaning they encourage nutritional deficiencies by either reducing vitamin and mineral absorption in the intestinal tract. As a result, relying on these two particular food sources for meeting our chromium intake is not recommended. As a general rule, a good diet, varied, natural and balanced, should provide us with all the chromium we need to meet our daily intake. Also see the unexpected reasons why coffee is bad for you.
Chromium absorption rate
Nonetheless, a surprising number of people have been found to have a chromium deficiency. This is believed to be caused by the following factors: food sources do not contain sufficient amounts of the mineral, people enjoy poor diets or don’t balance their eating so as to include chromium-rich foods in their diet and, most important, chromium is absorbed very poorly but eliminated in very high amounts from the body.
As a result, supplements may sometimes be required in order to avoid deficiencies. Chromium chloride, chromium nicotinate and chromium picolinate are the most common names of chromium forms in food supplements. Consulting a doctor before taking chromium supplements is advised.
Need to know: chromium bioavailability refers to the fact that not all the chromium we ingest is fully absorbed at the intestinal level. Some forms of the mineral may be poorly absorbed, while digestive problems or certain medication (antacids, for example) also prevent optimal absorption. Ascorbic acid and niacin, or vitamins C and B3 have been found to increase chromium absorption. Similarly, vitamin C increases iron absorption.
What are the benefits of chromium?
Even so, very little chromium gets absorbed overall in an healthy individual. Fortunately, the human body has significantly low demands. Exceeding its needs may lead to toxicity symptoms such as liver and kidney damage or gastrointestinal problems. Nonetheless, it remains a mineral with great health benefits and essential for sustaining life. Read below about the 6 most noteworthy properties and health benefits of the mineral.
Benefits for insulin metabolism
Getting enough chromium improves insulin production, with benefits for regulating blood sugar (glucose) levels. People suffering from obesity or diabetes show poor insulin activity. In severe cases, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin at all. And even when the pancreas may produce sufficient insulin, it seems the diabetic body cannot make good use of it. Chromium helps the body use insulin for transporting glucose (sugar) from the blood into cells for the purpose of reducing levels of the sugar in the blood and feeding cells to produce energy more efficiently.
Lower risks for diabetes type 2
Chromium may play a role in preventing type 2 diabetes. Because it regulates insulin metabolism, the mineral prevents high glucose levels in the blood, the cause for hyperglycemia and a risk factor for diabetes. Research suggests chromium may be used for managing prediabetes, a condition characterized by continual higher than normal blood sugar levels, which poses a higher risk for diabetes.
Potential benefits for depression
An adequate chromium intake may help relieve or alleviate depression symptoms in people suffering from atypical depression disorder. Chromium may potentially prove effective for AD (Alzheimer’s Disease). However, more research is needed to determine to what extent the mineral may help with the condition and what is its mechanism of action.
Chromium for lowering cholesterol
By lowering LDL (low-density) cholesterol and raising HDL (high-density) cholesterol, chromium improves blood lipid levels, promoting good cardiovascular health. It has been found to play a role in preventing hypertension as well.
Benefits for energy metabolism
Chromium supports normal energy metabolism by ensuring the proper synthesis of fats, protein and carbohydrates during digestion, a function which contributes to improving energy levels.
Benefits for weight loss
It would appear that chromium supports weight loss by helping combat the feeling of hunger and, at the same time, promoting a better muscle tone which helps with keeping active. Its role in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates is believed support its benefits for weight loss, but there are studies that argue its effectiveness for weight loss.
Chromium deficiency symptoms
Chromium deficiency symptoms may include: insulin resistance and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), increased risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol, irregular heartbeat, heart disease, brain inflammation, nerve damage, severe weight loss, itching, skin irritation, dermatitis, stomach upset.
Although chromium deficiency is rare, toxicity may occur when exceeding the recommended intake from food supplements. Because it is stored in the liver (spleen and bones), it may lead to liver damage if intake is too high. Although it is probably the least studied mineral, data available up to this point suggests that while recommended daily allowances should not be exceeded, it is just as important to include chromium-rich foods to our diet in order to keep healthy. Also, vitamins C and B3 are believed to significantly increase the absorption of the mineral.